Tuberculosis (TB) is a communicable disease that remains a major global problem that has claimed multiple millions of lives, more especially in the developing countries .
It is approximated that 8.6 million people were diagnosed with TB in year 2012 and 1.3 million people died from TB in the same year .
The breast is known as an organ of the body that is likened to the skeletal muscle and the spleen in terms of resistance to TB . Just like the liver; breast, spleen and the musculoskeletal TB are rare and the reason behind this rarity is secondary to low tension of oxygen and that prohibits the growth of the mycobacterium since the conditions are unfavorable and unconducive for its growth.
Diagnosing primary breast TB is an extremely rare encounter even in TB endemic areas of the world .
Primary breast TB incidence is reported to range between 0.025 and 0.1% in the developed countries compared to the incidence of breast TB in the developing countries which is approximated at 3–4.5% of TB cases .
Five various groups of TB of the breast have been classified by McKeon and Wilkinson 
- Nodular tubercular mastitis
- Disseminated or confluent tubercular mastitis
- Sclerosing tubercular mastitis
- Tuberculous mastitis obliterans
- Acute miliary tubercular mastitis
Amongst the groups mentioned above, the nodular type of TB breast is the most common and some of its clinical features entail a well defined mass that is painless, slow growing, progressive and may also lead to sinus formation as a result of skin ulceration 
It is important to note that there may be co-existence of breast TB and breast cancer on rare occasions and both the clinical and the radiological features of these two entities may overlap .
Some of ultrasonographic and mammographic features of breast TB reported in the recent study involve 
- Smooth bordered masses in 40%
- Axillary or intra-mammary lymphadenopathy in 40%
- Mass lesions mimicking breast carcinoma in 30%
- Asymmetrical density and duct ectasia in 30%
- Skin thickening in 20%
- Macro-calcification in 20%
- Skin sinus in 10%
The radiological investigations are not diagnostic of TB breast but they are mainly used to assess the breast lesions for the full extent. The difficulty of mammogram in differentiating between the breast cancer and breast TB makes its use limited in the diagnostic process of breast TB  .
Some of the ultrasound features of nodular trabecular mastitis entail but not limited to hypoechoic lesions that may also be cystic and complex poorly circumscribed lesions .
The sclerosing tubercular mastitis on ultrasound does not demonstrate a definite mass lesion but presents as an increased breast echogenicity .
Both computed tomography scan and magnetic resonance imaging scan are of limited value in diagnosing the breast TB. However, these two radiological tools are useful in evaluating for the chest wall extension and the extramammary extent of the lesions .
Breast TB is treated with anti-TB treatment just like the pulmonary TB and the duration of the treatment stretches to six months. The six months duration of TB therapy is divided into two months of intensive-phase and four months of the continuation-phase .
Excisional Biopsy is performed to exclude co-existence of TB breast and breast cancer.
There are no clear treatment guidelines for treating the co-existence of breast TB and breast cancer, however; there is no existing conflict in prescribing both the Anti-TB treatment and cancer chemotherapy simultaneously . One of the suggested treatment options is that patients may be started on anti-TB treatment before they are initiated on chemotherapy  .