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Case Report
 
Extrarenal Nephroblastoma
Gaxa Luvo1, Hlatshwayo Bafana2
1MBChB, Senior Registrar, Diagnostic Radiology and Imaging, Polokwane-Mankweng Hospital Complex, Polokwane, Limpopo, South Africa.
2Dip Rad Diag, MBChB, MMed Rad D, Senior specialist, Diagnostic Radiology and Imaging, Polokwane-Mankweng Hospital Complex, Polokwane, Limpopo, South Africa.

Article ID: 100010CRINTGL2015
doi:10.5348/crint-2015-10-CR-5

Address correspondence to:
Bafana Elliot Hlatshwayo
P.O. Box 571, Kwa-Xuma
Gauteng 1868
South Africa
Phone: +27152875122
Fax: +27862600185

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How to cite this article:
Luvo G, Bafana H. Extrarenal Nephroblastoma. Case Rep Int 2015;4:18–21.


Abstract
Introduction: As much as the nephroblastoma is almost exclusively known to be a renal tumor, some of the extrarenal locations, although rare, have been described in the literature. The sites of this rare entity (extrarenal nephroblastoma) reported entail the inguinal canals, retro-peritoneum, mediastinum, chest wall, ovaries, cervix, uterus and the prostate gland.
Case Report: We report a case of a 13-month-old boy who was referred from the peripheral hospital presenting with severe abdominal distention of three months duration. The patient was critical ill on arrival and had to be actively resuscitated. The patient was emaciated. No known past medical history reported and the patient had normal developmental milestones. On physical examination a large abdominopelvic mass was palpated. The patient also had sepsis confirmed with blood culture and hypoglycemia with a blood glucose measurement of 1.4 mmol/l saturation was 96% in room air and had episodes of gasping respiration, the heart beat was ranging between 110–140 bpm. The patient had pallor with hemoglobin 8.4 g/dL and had cold peripheries. Computed tomography scan and biopsy were performed and the diagnosis of an extrarenal large abdominopelvic nephroblastoma was made. The patient was later, after stabilization, treated with chemotherapy. The patient now remains in a critical general condition while on chemotherapy.
Conclusion: A nephroblastoma may present in some extrarenal sites which is quite an uncommon encounter, the most common of these rare sites being the retro-peritoneum. The final diagnosis is mainly histopathological. There are no specific management protocols and as a result the extrarenal tumors are managed in the same manner in which the intra-renal tumors are managed with a general good prognosis.

Keywords: Computed tomography scan, Extrarenal nephroblastoma, Histopathology


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Author Contributions
Luvo Gaxa – Substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, Analysis and interpretation of data, Drafting the article, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Bafana Elliot Hlatshwayo – Substantial contributions to conception and design, Revising it critically for important intellectual content, Final approval of the version to be published
Guarantor of submission
The corresponding author is the guarantor of submission.
Source of support
None
Conflict of interest
Authors declare no conflict of interest.
Copyright
© 2015 Luvo Gaxa et al. This article is distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the original author(s) and original publisher are properly credited. Please see the copyright policy on the journal website for more information.



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